In London, civil claims are brought against individuals every day. Sometimes this is through the use of tort law. A 'tort' refers to the act of one private citizen that is legally considered as causing injury or damage to another. The person who commits the tortious act is known as a tortfeasor, whilst the victim is a plaintiff. Tort law uses common principles and case law; it does not operate on the basis of a previous legal agreement, such as employment contracts.
Indeed, tort law involves civil wrongs, rather than criminal wrongs, the latter of which needs to be brought to court by police or the government rather than individuals. Furthermore, if a claim of tort is successful, those prosecuted only pay fines and compensation rather than receiving prison sentences.